Fenders used in STS transfer operations are divided into two categories:
• Primary fenders, which are positioned along the parallel body of the ship to afford the maximum protection while alongside. They are also designed to absorb energy as the vessels berth alongside.
• Secondary fenders which are used to protect the bow and stern plating from inadvertent contact if the ships get out of alignment during mooring or unmooring.
In general, fenders are placed on either:
• Port side of the manoeuvring ship
• Starboard side of the receiving ship
Care must be taken to ensure that the fenders are maintained at their design pressure during STS usage. The fenders in Gothenburg are normally ‘Pneumatic 50’ and have an internal pressure of 0.5 Bar (0.5 kgf/cm2). Maximum allowed displacement for manoeuvring ship is 125 000 tonnes and maximum berthing speed is 0.2 knots.
If ‘Pneumatic 80’ fenders are ever used, they are inflated to 0.8 Bar (0.8 kgf/cm2). The increased pressure and the higher fender specifications, result in higher guaranteed energy absorption and reaction forces.
Details of the energy absorption capabilities for fenders of varying dimensions can be found in the manufacturer’s handbook.
Secondary fenders are always utilised in accordance with OCIMF recommendations.
Fender moorings must be tended during transfer operations.
During multiple transfers the STS equipment must be checked after each transfer in the best manner available.
Click below to learn more about JIER Pneumatic Rubber Fenders and Foam Filled Fenders which are the two main fender type for STS operation:
Feel free to contact us if you have any comments or inquires and one of our skilled staff representatives will contact you within the next business day.